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Transition and post-transition metals in exhaled breath condensate.

Transition and post-transition metals in exhaled breath condensate.
Author Information (click to view)

Ghio A, Madden MC, Esther CR,


Ghio A, Madden MC, Esther CR, (click to view)

Ghio A, Madden MC, Esther CR,

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Journal of breath research 2017 12 15() doi 10.1088/1752-7163/aaa214
Abstract

Water vapor in expired air, as well as dispersed non-volatile components, condense onto a cooler surface after exiting the respiratory tract. This exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a dilute sampling of the epithelial lining fluid. Accordingly, the collection of EBC imparts a capacity to provide biomarkers of injury preceding clinical disease. Concentrations of transition and post-transition metals in EBC are included among these endpoints. Iron and zinc are those metals in highest concentration and are measurable in all EBC samples from healthy subjects; other metals are most frequently either at or below the level of detection in this group. Gender, age, and smoking can impact EBC metals concentrations in healthy subjects. EBC metals concentrations among patients diagnosed to have particular lung diseases (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive obstructive disease, and interstitial lung disease) has been of research interest but no definite pattern of involvement has been delineated. Studies of occupationally-exposed workers confirm significant exposures to specific metals but such EBC metals measurements frequently provide evidence redundant with environmental sampling. Measurements of metals concentrations in EBC remains a research tool into metal homeostasis in the respiratory tract and participation of metals in disease pathogenesis. Quantification of metals concentrations in EBC is currently not reliable for clinical use in either supporting or determining any diagnosis. Issues that must be addressed prior to use of EBC metals measurements include the establishment of both standardized collection and measurement techniques.

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