The following is a summary of “Deep Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia,” published in the February 2023 issue of Clinical Medicine by Szczakowska et al.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is commonly observed due to prolonged use of dopamine receptor blockers, frequently prescribed in psychiatry. TD is characterized by involuntary and irregular hyperkinetic movements that primarily affect the facial muscles, including the eyelids, lips, tongue, and cheeks. These movements may also occur less frequently in the limbs, neck, pelvis, and trunk. In certain individuals, tardive dyskinesia manifests as a highly severe condition, significantly impairing daily activities and resulting in social stigma and distress.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic technique for managing various conditions, including Parkinson’s. It has also been found to be an efficacious intervention for treating TD, particularly in cases that are unresponsive to pharmacological interventions. DBS is often considered a final option for individuals with severe and drug-resistant forms of TD. Unfortunately, the cohort of individuals with Tourette’s Disorder who have received Deep Brain Stimulation remains quite restricted.
The procedure is considered a recent development in the field of TD. Thus, the number of dependable clinical studies is limited and primarily comprises case reports. Bilateral and unilateral stimulation of two specific sites has demonstrated efficacy in treating TD. The majority of authors report the act of stimulating the globus pallidus internus (GPi), while there are fewer accounts of stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The current manuscript presents information regarding stimulating the brain mentioned above regions. We assess the effectiveness of the two techniques by evaluating the two existing studies encompassing the most substantial patient populations. While GPi stimulation is commonly documented in medical literature, our analysis suggests that STN DBS yields similar outcomes in reducing involuntary movements.