Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) as well as mortality. D-dimer is a marker of fibrinolysis and has been used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in VTE among other diseases. The purpose of our study is to describe outcomes from out center and to examine trends in D-dimer levels as it relates to VTE and mortality.Patients admitted with confirmed COVID-19 cases to Emory Healthcare from March 12, 2020 through April 6, 2020 with measured plasma D-dimer levels were included in our retrospective analysis. Relevant data about comorbidities, hospitalization course, laboratory results, and outcomes were analyzed.One hundred fifteen patients were included in our study. Mean age was 64 ± 15 years, 47 (41%) females and 84 (73%) African-American. Hypertension was present in 83 (72%) and diabetes in 60 (52%). Mean duration of hospitalization was 19 ± 11 days with 62 (54%) patients intubated (mean duration of 13 ± 8 days). VTE was diagnosed in 27 (23%) patients (mean time to diagnosis 14 ± 9 days). Median D-dimer within the first 7 days of hospitalization was higher (6450 vs. 1596 ng/mL, p  .05 for all). Within the first 7 days of hospitalization, peak D-dimer level of >2500 ng/mL and a rate of change exceeding 150 ng/mL/d were predictive of future diagnosis of VTE. Rise in D-dimer >2000 ng/mL within any 24 hour period through hospital day 10 had 75% sensitivity and 74% specificity for diagnosis of VTE.We found that both magnitude and rate of rise in d-dimer within the first 10 days of hospitalization are predictive of diagnosis of VTE but not mortality. These parameters may aid in identifying individuals with possible underlying VTE or at high risk for VTE, thereby guiding risk stratification and anticoagulation policies in COVID-19 patients.

References

PubMed