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Trends and factors in human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis C virus testing and infection among injection drug users newly entering methadone maintenance treatment in Guangdong Province, China 2006-2013: a consecutive cross sectional study.

Trends and factors in human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis C virus testing and infection among injection drug users newly entering methadone maintenance treatment in Guangdong Province, China 2006-2013: a consecutive cross sectional study.
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Liu Y, Liu Y, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L,


Liu Y, Liu Y, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L, (click to view)

Liu Y, Liu Y, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L,

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BMJ open 2017 07 137(7) e015524 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015524

Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess trends and related factors in HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing and infection among injection drug users (IDUs) newly entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Guangdong Province, China.

METHOD
Consecutive cross sectional surveys were conducted in 14 MMT clinics from July 2006 to December 2013 in Guangdong Province, China. IDUs were excluded if they were re-enrolled or referred from other MMT clinics. Trend tests were used to examine HIV and/or HCV testing and infection, sociodemographic characteristics, drug use related behaviours and the past 3 month sexual behaviours on enrolment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of HIV and/or HCV testing and infection.

RESULTS
7539 IDUs with an average age of 35.6±6.2 years were newly enrolled with a history of injection for an average of 11.8±4.9 years. The average frequency of injection before enrolment had been increasing. HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV dual testing increased from 2006 to 2013 (ptrend<0.001). However, all three types of infections remained stable (ptrend>0.05) until reaching a peak in 2011, excluding the first year. Associating with fellow drug users 1-4 times during the past month, injecting for 15+ years and having multiple sexual partners during the past 3 months predicted higher percentages for HIV and/or HCV testing (p<0.05), while those injecting 4+ times per day in the past month and those who had ever shared needles were less likely to take both tests (p<0.05). Having multiple sexual partners, a longer duration of injection drug use and sharing needles or sharing more frequently were major risk factors for HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of HIV and HCV were high and quite stable among new IDU entrants in MMT. Publicising MMT, routine screening, and behavioural and structural interventions is needed.

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