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Trends in late HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men in Jiangsu province, China: Results from four consecutive community-based surveys, 2011-2014.

Trends in late HIV diagnosis among men who have sex with men in Jiangsu province, China: Results from four consecutive community-based surveys, 2011-2014.
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Hu H, Yan H, Liu X, Xu X, Xu J, Qiu T, Shi LE, Fu G, Huan X, McFarland W, Wei C,


Hu H, Yan H, Liu X, Xu X, Xu J, Qiu T, Shi LE, Fu G, Huan X, McFarland W, Wei C, (click to view)

Hu H, Yan H, Liu X, Xu X, Xu J, Qiu T, Shi LE, Fu G, Huan X, McFarland W, Wei C,

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PloS one 2017 03 0912(3) e0172664 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0172664

Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To examine trends in HIV testing, late HIV diagnosis and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu province, China.

METHODS
Four consecutive community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted among MSM from 2011 to 2014 in eight cities in the province. Participants were recruited from MSM venues and via the internet. HIV bio-behavioral surveys were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral data and measure HIV infection. HIV-infected participants with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/uL were defined as having a late HIV diagnosis. Chi-square trend tests were used to compare temporal changes over the years and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with late diagnosis.

RESULTS
A total of 2,441, 2,677, 2,591 and 2,610 participants were enrolled in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Testing for HIV in the last 12 months decreased over the time period, from 59.9% to 52.5% (p<0.001). Late HIV diagnosis remained high and steady, ranging from 33.3% to 44.2% over the years with no significant change over time (p = 0.418). MSM who were older than 24 years (aOR = 1.748, p = 0.020 for 25-39 years old; aOR = 3.148, p<0.001 for 40 years old or older), were recruited via internet (aOR = 1.596, p = 0.024), and did not have an HIV test in the past 12 months (aOR = 3.385, p<0.001) were more likely to be late diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS
Our study showed a plateau in HIV testing among MSM in China, in parallel to high levels of late diagnosis. Emerging and innovative strategies such as HIV self-testing and reaching more MSM by internet, both highly acceptable to MSM in China, may reduce late diagnosis.

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