Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of neurodegenerative diseases in the elderly. The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD and leads to the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel, is involved in synaptic plasticity and memory. However, the role of TRPV1 in AD pathogenesis remains largely elusive. Here, we reported that the expression of TRPV1 was decreased in the brain of APP23/PS45 double transgenic AD model mice. Genetic upregulation of TRPV1 by adeno-associated virus (AAV) inhibited the APP processing and Aβ deposition in AD model mice. Meanwhile, upregulation of TRPV1 ameliorated the deficits of hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning and memory through inhibiting GluA2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Furthermore, pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an agonist of TRPV1, dramatically reversed the impairments of hippocampal CA1 LTP and spatial learning and memory in AD model mice. Taken together, these results indicate that TRPV1 activation effectively ameliorates cognitive and synaptic functions through inhibiting AMPAR endocytosis in AD model mice and could be a novel molecule for AD treatment.© 2020 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.