Helminths, allergens, and certain protists induce type 2 immune responses, but the underlying mechanisms of immune activation remain poorly understood. In the small intestine, chemosensing by epithelial tuft cells results in the activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which subsequently drive increased tuft cell frequency. This feedforward circuit is essential for intestinal remodeling and helminth clearance. ILC2 activation requires tuft-cell-derived interleukin-25 (IL-25), but whether additional signals regulate the circuit is unclear. Here, we show that tuft cells secrete cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) to rapidly activate type 2 immunity following chemosensing of helminth infection. CysLTs cooperate with IL-25 to activate ILC2s, and tuft-cell-specific ablation of leukotriene synthesis attenuates type 2 immunity and delays helminth clearance. Conversely, cysLTs are dispensable for the tuft cell response induced by intestinal protists. Our findings identify an additional tuft cell effector function and suggest context-specific regulation of tuft-ILC2 circuits within the small intestine.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Qualitative Investigation of Provers’ Experiences of Participation in Homeopathic Pathogenetic Trials.
February 17, 2020
February 13, 2020