Given that there is lack of effective therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the combination of photothermal (PTT), photodynamic (PDT), and chemical therapy (CT) has emerged as a prominent strategy. Tumor-targeted delivery and controlled release of antitumor drug are key-elements of any combined therapy. Considering these important elements, we designed and constructed tumor microenvironment (TME)-activated nanoprobes (PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA). The CaCO shell could efficiently entrap the photosensitizer IR820 and the chemotherapeutic docetaxel (DTX) on the surface of pentagonal gold prisms (PGPs) to prevent elimination from the circulation, and it could act as a TME-trigger to achieve TME-responsive drug release. After modification with hyaluronic acid, PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA was capable of synergistic TME-triggered PTT/PDT/CT and tumor-targeted delivery. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA could achieve synergistic antitumor effects following near-infrared (NIR)-light irradiation. In addition, using the NIR fluorescence signal from IR820 and the photoacoustic (PA) signal from PGPs, i.e., through multimodal fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging, we could monitor the in vivo distribution and excretion of PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA. Therefore, it can be concluded that PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA shows promising clinical translational potential as a treatment for CRPC. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Utilizing pentagonal gold prisms (PGPs), we constructed a multifunctional nanoplatform (PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA) for effectively delivering agents into the tumor microenvironment (TME) for the diagnosis and therapy of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The synthetic nanoplatform can satisfy TME-activated synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT)/chemical therapy (CT) and NIR fluorescence imaging/photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of nanoplatform allowed the specific tumor-targeting capacity and biocompatibility. In conclusion, PGP/CaCO@IR820/DTX-HA could be a promising integrated nanoplatform for CRPC diagnosis and treatment.Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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