Periodontal disease results from the pathogenic interactions between the tissue, immune system, and microbiota; however, standard therapy fails to address the cellular mechanism underlying the chronic inflammation. Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of T-cell fate, and biomaterials that recruit and program DC locally can direct T-cell effector responses. We hypothesized that a biomaterial that recruited and programmed dendritic cells toward a tolerogenic phenotype could enrich regulatory T-cells within periodontal tissue, with the eventual goal of attenuating T-cell mediated pathology.
The interaction of previously identified factors that could induce tolerance, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), with the periodontitis network was confirmed in silico. The effect of the cytokines on DC migration was explored in vitro using time-lapse imaging. Finally, regulatory T-cell enrichment in the dermis and periodontal tissue in response to alginate hydrogels delivering TSLP and GM-CSF was examined in vivo in mice using immunohistochemistry and live-animal imaging.
The GM-CSF and TSLP interactome connects to the periodontitis network. GM-CSF enhances DC migration in vitro. An intradermal injection of an alginate hydrogel releasing GM-CSF enhanced DC numbers and the addition of TSLP enriched FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells locally. Injection of a hydrogel with GM-CSF and TSLP into the periodontal tissue in mice increased DC and FOXP3+ cell numbers in the tissue, FOXP3+ cells in the lymph node, and IL-10 in the tissue.
Local biomaterial-mediated delivery of GM-CSF and TSLP can enrich DC and FOXP3+ cells and holds promise for treating the pathologic inflammation of periodontal disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.