Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which is also known as thioredoxin-binding protein 2 (TBP2), directly interacts with the major antioxidant protein thioredoxin (TRX) and inhibits its antioxidant function and expression. However, recent studies have demonstrated that TXNIP is a multifunctional protein with functions beyond increasing intracellular oxidative stress. TXNIP activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex formation, triggers mitochondrial stress-induced apoptosis, and stimulates inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). These newly discovered functions of TXNIP highlight its role in disease development, especially in response to several cellular stress factors. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple functions of TXNIP in pathological conditions and summarize its involvement in various diseases, such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss the potential of TXNIP as a therapeutic target and TXNIP inhibitors as novel therapeutic drugs for treating these diseases.© 2023. The Author(s).