PloS one 2018 03 1513(3) e0192616 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0192616
One of the hallmarks of diabetes is impaired endothelial function. Previous studies showed that HDL can exert protective effects on endothelium stimulating NO production and protecting from inflammation and suggested that HDL in obese people with diabetes and dyslipidemia may have lower endothelial protective function. We aimed to investigate whether type 2 diabetes impairs HDL endothelium protective functions in people with otherwise normal lipid profile.
In a case-control study (n = 41 per group) nested in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study we tested the ability of HDL to protect endothelium by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and suppressing NFκB-mediated inflammatory response in endothelial cells. In parallel we measured HDL protein composition, sphinogosine-1-phosphate and P-selectin.
Despite similar levels of plasma HDL-C the HDL in individuals with type 2 diabetes lost almost 40% of its ability to stimulate eNOS activity (P<0.001) and 20% of its ability to suppress TNFα-dependent NFκB-mediated inflammatory response in endothelial cells (P<0.001) compared to non-T2D controls despite similar BMI and lipid profile (HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, TG). Significantly, the ability of HDL to stimulate eNOS activity was negatively associated with plasma levels of P-selectin, an established marker of endothelial dysfunction (r = -0.32, P<0.001). Furthermore, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels were decreased in diabetic plasma (P = 0.017) and correlated with HDL-mediated eNOS activation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS
Collectively, our data suggest that HDL in individuals with type 2 diabetes loses its ability to maintain proper endothelial function independent of HDL-C, perhaps due to loss of S1P, and may contribute to development of diabetic complications.