In this review, we first provide a short overview of the phenotype and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and discuss the current and new classification system. Further, we aim to review the effects of different antidiabetic medication classes on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and discuss future treatment strategies based on the subgroups proposed by Ahlqvist et al. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed novel subgroups of type 2 diabetes provide an interesting concept that could lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the broad group of type 2 diabetes paving the way for personalized treatment choices based on understanding the root cause of the disease. We conclude that all novel subgroups of adult-onset diabetes would benefit from antidiabetic medication that take into account the main pathophysiology of the disease and thereby prevent of end-organ damage. However, we are just in the beginning of personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes and studies to investigate effects of current and novel drugs in subgroups with different metabolic phenotypes is needed in order to develop personalized treatment of the syndrome.
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