Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are systemic infectious diseases of global significance caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica Serovar Typhi (short name: Salmonella Typhi) or Serovar Paratyphi (short name: Salmonella Paratyphi). The course of these fecal-orally transmitted diseases is mainly characterized by a high fever. Left untreated, the course of typhoid fever can be severe and lethal. The infection is almost always acquired outside of Europe (mainly in India) and is notifiable in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Paratyphoid is an attenuated disease of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Paratyphi. Available vaccines only protect against Salmonella Typhi. Antibiotic resistance reflects the situation in endemic countries and shows a worrying increase of multi-drug resistant isolates. Currently, third-generation cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone are recommended as first-line therapy; if sensitive to quinolones, fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin may continue to be administered. Crucial preventive measures for travelers to endemic regions include consistent water and food hygiene as well as vaccination, whereby only protection rates of 50-70 % are achieved by currently available vaccines. In the light of increasing multi-drug resistance, a more effective conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi with cross-reactivity against Salmonella Paratyphi is needed more than ever.© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cost-Utility of Attachment-Based Compassion Therapy (ABCT) for Fibromyalgia Compared to Relaxation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
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