Pancreatic cancer cells have an inherent tolerance to withstand nutrition starvation, allowing them to survive in hypovascular tumor microenvironments that lack of sufficient nutrients and oxygen. Developing anti-cancer agents that target this tolerance to nutritional starvation is a promising anti-austerity strategy for eradicating pancreatic cancer cells in their microenvironment. In this study, we employed a chemical biology approach using the Ugi reaction to rapidly synthesize new anti-austerity agents and evaluate their structure-activity relationships. Out of seventeen Ugi adducts tested, Ugi adduct 11 exhibited the strongest anti-austerity activity, showing preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells with a PC value of 0.5 µM. Further biological investigation of Ugi adduct 11 revealed a dramatic alteration of cellular morphology, leading to PANC-1 cell death within 24 h under nutrient-deprived conditions. Furthermore, the R absolute configuration of 11 was found to significantly contribute to the preferential anti-austerity ability toward PANC-1, with a PC value of 0.2 µM. Mechanistically, Ugi adduct (R)-11 was found to inhibit the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway preferentially under nutrition starvation conditions. Consequently, Ugi-adduct (R)-11 could be a promising candidate for drug development targeting pancreatic cancer based on the anti-austerity strategy. Our study also demonstrated that the Ugi reaction-based chemical engineering of natural product extracts can be used as a rapid method for discovering novel anti-austerity agents for combating pancreatic cancer.