Italian journal of pediatrics 2017 08 0443(1) 67 doi 10.1186/s13052-017-0382-8
The recognition, follow-up, and early treatment of neonatal jaundice has become more difficult, since the earlier discharge of newborns from hospitals has become common practice. Since intrapartum hypoxic stress has been pointed as predisposing factor for the occurrence of hyperbilirubinemia risk, we tested the association with the cord blood acid-base index tests.
A cohort of healthy term and near-term newborns underwent umbilical cord hemogasanalysis at birth and capillary heel total serum bilirubin (TSB) pre-discharge, scheduled at 36 h of life, to define the risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, defined as >9 mg/dL TSB level, ≥ 75th percentile on nomogram of Bhutani et al.
It was found that among 537 studied neonates, 133 (24.8%) had pre-discharge TSB levels of >9 mg/dL. When the cord blood gas analysis index tests were compared, their acidemia levels were significantly higher than those of neonates with normal TSB levels: HCO3(-) (20.71 ± 2.37 vs. 21.29 ± 2.25 mEq/L, p < 0.010), base deficit (-3.52 ± 3.188 vs. -2.68 ± 3.266 mEq/L, p < 0.010), and lactacidemia (3.84 ± 1.864 vs. 3.39 ± 1.737 mEq/L, p < 0.012), respectively. However, logistic regression analysis showed that base deficit was the strongest index of the pre-discharge hyperbilirubinemia risk (OR, 95% CI 0.593; 0.411-0.856), and the hyperbilirubinemia risk increased by 40% with the decrease of 1 mEq/L of base deficit. CONCLUSIONS
Umbilical cord blood acidemia and lactacidemia are significant indexes of adaptive mechanisms at birth. The base deficit provides the strongest association with future development of high bilirubin on an hour specific bilirubin nomogram generating risk stratification score in term and near-term neonates.