Changes in land-use structure and pattern can affect both atmospheric CO concentrations and the terrestrial carbon budget. To explore the effects of non-uniformly distributed CO concentration on terrestrial carbon uptake under land-use changes, this study integrated global CO concentrations, Net Primary Productivity (NPP), and land-use data under historical period and SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios from 1850 to 2100. Land-use intensity (LUI) and the CO correlation to NPP were calculated using partial correlation analysis by controlling LUI. The results showed that NPP growth over the forest was the highest among the land-use types, reaching 0.54 g C·m, 2.06 g C·m and 4.64 g C·m, respectively, under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. Among all the scenarios, the average correlation levels of atmospheric CO and NPP considering the LUI effect and controlling LUI ranged respectively from 0.34 to 0.68 and from 0.32 to 0.61 at a 5 % level of significance. It suggested that sensible land use planning might enhance the CO fertilization effect and that rises in CO concentrations could stimulate terrestrial carbon absorption. The findings add to the body of knowledge about the effects of atmospheric CO on terrestrial carbon uptake and serve as a scientific guide for protecting terrestrial carbon stocks and managing land use.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.