The clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages (efferocytosis) is crucial to maintain normal tissue homeostasis; however, efferocytosis of cancer cells frequently results in inflammation and immunosuppression. Recently, we demonstrated that efferocytosis of apoptotic prostate cancer cells by bone marrow-derived macrophages induced a pro-inflammatory response that accelerated metastatic tumor growth in bone. To evaluate the microenvironmental impact of macrophages and their efferocytic function, we compared peritoneal macrophages (P-MΦ) versus bone marrow-derived macrophages (BM-MΦs) using an efferocytosis in vitro model. The capability to engulf apoptotic prostate cells was similar in BM-MΦs and P-MΦs. Ex vivo analysis of BM-MΦs showed an M2-like phenotype compared with a predominantly M1-like phenotype in P-MΦs. A distinct gene and protein expression profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines was found in BM-MΦs as compared with P-MΦs engulfing apoptotic prostate cancer cells. Importantly, the reprogramming of BM-MΦs toward an M1-like phenotype mitigated their inflammatory cytokine expression profile. In conclusion, BM-MΦs and P-MΦs are both capable of efferocytosing apoptotic prostate cancer cells; however, BM-MΦs exert increased inflammatory cytokine expression that is dependent upon the M2 polarization stage of macrophages. These findings suggest that bone marrow macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic cancer cells maintains a unique pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may support a fertile niche for cancer growth. Finally, bone marrow macrophage reprogramming towards M1-type by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induced a significant reduction in the efferocytosis-mediated pro-inflammatory signature.
All together now: aggregating multiple records to develop a person-based dataset to integrate and enhance infectious disease surveillance in Ontario, Canada.
February 28, 2020
Identification of Novel Mutations in the and Genes in Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy in South India.
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Strain measurement of the deep layer of the supraspinatus tendon using fresh frozen cadaver: The influence of shoulder elevation.
September 21, 2020
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