Marine pollution is one of the most underlooked forms of pollution as it affects most aquatic lives and public health in the coastal area. The diverse form of the hazardous pollutant in the marine ecosystem leads the serious genetic level disorders and diseases which include cancer, diabetes, arthritis, reproductive, and neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and several microbial infections. Therefore, a recent alarming study on these pollutants, the microplastics have been voiced out in many countries worldwide, it was even found to be in the human placenta. In recent times, nanomaterials have demonstrated their potential in the detection and remediation of sensitive contaminants. In this review, we presented a comprehensive overview of the source, and distribution of diverse marine pollution on both aquatic and human health by summarizing the concentration of diverse pollutions (heavy metals, pesticides, microbial toxins, and micro/nano plastics) in marine samples such as soil, water, and seafood. Followed by emphasizing its ecotoxicological impact on aquatic animal life and coastal public health. Also discussed are the applicability and advancements of nanomaterials and nano-based biosensors in the detection, prevention, and remediation of diverse pollution in the marine ecosystem.
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