The term ‘RASopathies’ covers a series of diseases that present mutations in the genes that code for the proteins of the RAS/MAPK pathway. These diseases include neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Legius syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, Costello syndrome and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Involvement of the RAS/MAPK pathway not only increases predisposition to develop tumours, but also determines the presence of phenotypic anomalies and alterations in learning processes.
To review the use of therapeutic strategies with mechanisms that have a selective action on RASopathies.
The fact that the RAS pathway is involved in a third of all neoplasms has led to the development and study of different drugs at this level. Some of these pharmaceutical agents have been tested in RASopathies, mainly in neurofibromatosis type 1. Here we analyse the use of different antitarget treatments: drugs that act on the membrane receptors, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in the mTOR pathway or MEK inhibitors. These latter have shown potential benefits in recent studies conducted on different RASopathies.
Today, thanks to the results from the first studies conducted with MEK inhibitor based mainly on animal models, a number of promising clinical trials are being carried out.