The role of radiosurgery has become further accentuated in the era of targeted agents (TA). Thus, the neurologic outcome of radiosurgery in brain metastasis (BM) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was reviewed. We analyzed 135 patients with BM of NSCLC who were administered Cyberknife radiosurgery (CKRS) as either initial or salvage therapy. We evaluated local failure (LF), intracranial failure (IF), and neurological death (ND) due to BM. Primary outcome was neurological death-free survival (NDFS). Median follow-up was 16.2 months. Median CKRS dose of 22 Gy was administered to median 2 targets per patient. Among 99 deaths, 14 (14%) were ND. Upfront treatment for BM included CKRS alone in 85 patients (63%), CKRS + TA in 26 patients (19%), and WBRT in 24 patients (18%). No patients or tumor related factors were associated with ND. However, the type of upfront treatment for BM was significantly associated with ND [HR 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.57) for CKRS + TA, HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.19-1.68) for CKRS alone] compared with the WBRT group (P = 0.01). The 2-year NDFS rates for the CKRS + TA, CRKS alone, and WBRT groups were 94%, 87%, and 78%, respectively (P = 0.03). Upfront CKRS showed significantly higher 2-year LF-free survival rate (P < 0.01). IF rate was insignificantly lower in the WBRT group compared with CKRS group (P = 0.38). Upfront CKRS + TA was associated with the best neurological outcome with high NDFS. Active brain control by early delivery of radiosurgery could achieve better neurological outcome in NSCLC with BM.
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