Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2017 07 2561(8) pii 10.1128/AAC.00522-17
A case-control study of the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on apoptosis pathway genes comprising 16 cases (HIV infected with mitochondrial toxicity) and 16 controls (HIV uninfected) was conducted. A total of 26 of 84 genes of the apoptosis pathway were differentially expressed. Two of the upregulated genes, DFFA and TNFRSF1A, classified 75% of study participants correctly as either a case or control. Thus, apoptosis may be in the causal pathway of ART-associated mitochondrial toxicity. These two genes could be markers for detecting and monitoring ART-induced mitochondrial toxicity.