The association between schizophrenia (SZ) and uric acid (UA) levels has been suggested for many years, but without solid evidence. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all case-control studies examining the serum and plasma UA levels in SZ subjects in comparison to those in healthy controls. Relevant studies published before October 29, 2018, were searched in the main electronic databases, and 17 studies were finally included into the meta-analysis after screening with the criteria. Our results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences of the UA levels between SZ subjects and healthy controls. Further subgroup analyses of the antipsychotic status reported the same finding. Subgroup analyses of clinical status showed that UA levels were decreased in subjects with first episode psychosis (FEP). The subgroup analyses of gender and ethnicity demonstrated that UA levels were decreased in male subjects and in Americans with SZ. Overall, these findings strengthen the clinical evidence that FEP is accompanied by increased oxidative stress response. Reduced UA levels may be a potential risk factor for SZ in male and in the Americans. However, whether there is a causal relationship between the reduced UA levels and the development of SZ deserves further investigation.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.