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Urinary phthalate metabolites over the first 15months of life and risk assessment – CHECK cohort study.

Urinary phthalate metabolites over the first 15months of life and risk assessment – CHECK cohort study.
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Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Kim HJ, Cho GJ, Kim GH, Eun SH, Lee JJ, Choi G, Suh E, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SK, Kim YD, Kim SY, Kim S, Eom S, Moon HB, Kim S, Choi K,


Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Kim HJ, Cho GJ, Kim GH, Eun SH, Lee JJ, Choi G, Suh E, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SK, Kim YD, Kim SY, Kim S, Eom S, Moon HB, Kim S, Choi K, (click to view)

Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Kim HJ, Cho GJ, Kim GH, Eun SH, Lee JJ, Choi G, Suh E, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SK, Kim YD, Kim SY, Kim S, Eom S, Moon HB, Kim S, Choi K,

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The Science of the total environment 2017 07 13607-608() 881-887 pii S0048-9697(17)31664-9
Abstract

Phthalates are important group of endocrine disruptors. Infants and young children are susceptible to phthalate exposure. However, information on the phthalate exposure during the early stages of life is very limited. This study was conducted to understand the temporal trend of exposure to major phthalates among infants of Korea during the first 15months after birth, and to estimate associated risks. A total of 286 urine samples were collected from 171 children at 3, 9, 12, or 15months of age, with 77 children sampled for two or more times. Four phthalates, i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were chosen, and their major metabolites were analyzed in the urine. The DEHP metabolites were detected in 100% of the urine samples at relatively higher levels compared to those reported in other countries. The levels of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) were generally lower. Urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites, especially DEHP metabolites, increased as children grew older. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) calculated for DEHP metabolites over time were high (0.7-0.8), suggesting persistence of consistent exposure sources during this sensitive period of life. Hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated from daily intake estimates divided by recommended toxicity thresholds. Among the study population, 4, 16, and 26% of the children showed HI >1 at 9, 12, and 15months of age, respectively. DEHP exposure explained most of the risk estimates. Considering vulnerability of young children to endocrine disruption, efforts to identify sources of exposure and to develop appropriate mitigation options are warranted.

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