BMJ open 2017 09 217(9) e016238 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016238
To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure.
Prospective cohort study.
Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria.
Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant.
We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1-10 years, 6.2% for 11-20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21-30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p<0.001). Using exposure for 1-10 years as reference, the adjusted OR of receiving a suspicious or malignant diagnosis increased with duration of exposure: OR=1.50 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.05, p=0.01) for 21-30 years and OR=1.78 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.56, p=0.002) for >30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11).
Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with beginning of exposure.