The study focuses on whether antigenic proteins encapsulated in biopolymeric nanoparticles can augment protective efficacy. Chitosan nanoparticles (ChN) were prepared by ionic gelation method and Culture Filtrate Proteins (CFP) – CFP-10 and CFP-21 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) were encapsulated in ChN. The binding efficiency of nanoparticles with CFP-10 and CFP-21 proteins was confirmed by UV-Spectrophotometer. The efficacy of nanoparticles-encapsulated antigenic proteins administered intraperitoneal against Mtb aerosol infection was evaluated in Balb/c mice. Protection study was done by bacterial counts [CFU]. CFP-10 and CFP-21 proteins primed cells demonstrated a Th1 bias T cell response in an ex vivo assay. ChN-CFP10 and ChN-CFP21 nanoparticles have both protective and therapeutic potential against Mtb. In the group of mice immunized with CHN-CFP-10 the number of colonies reduced significantly from day 15 to day 60. ChN-CFP-21 showed maximum protection in ChN-CFP-21 immunized mice. ChN-CFP-10 and ChN-CFP-21 clearly showed enhanced protection against Mtb.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.