This study investigated the current situation and factors associated with contraceptive use, especially LARC practice among postpartum women.

A cross-sectional study was conducted with a PPS sampling method with 423 mothers whose youngest child was aged under two years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on participants’ demographics, reproductive history, and contraceptive use.

The rate of using all contraceptive methods was 66.4% in the study group, and the quality of using LARC was 9.9%. Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use were: no breastfeeding, no intention of having another child, and education beyond high school. Statistically significant predictors of LARC utilization were: vaginal delivery, at least one child before the index delivery, and no breastfeeding.

The study concluded that the utilization rate of postpartum contraception, especially LARC, was relatively low in rural China. The benefits of LARC have not been realized, and breastfeeding is still incorrectly believed to be a reliable method of contraception. Thus, health education and contraceptive knowledge and regulations need to be updated and enhanced based on research evidence for increased postpartum contraception adoption in rural China.