Chinese medical journal 130(7) 798-804 doi 10.4103/0366-6999.202739
A relationship between hyperthyroidism and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. Therefore, this study explored the use of first-phase insulin secretion in the differential diagnosis of thyroid diabetes (TDM) and T2DM.
In total, 101 patients with hyperthyroidism were divided into hyperthyroidism with normal glucose tolerance (TNGT), hyperthyroidism with impaired glucose regulation (TIGR), and diabetes (TDM) groups. Furthermore, 96 patients without hyperthyroidism were recruited as control groups (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], impaired glucose regulation [IGR], and T2DM). The following parameters were evaluated: homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR, HOMA-β, modified β-cell function index (MBCI), peak insulin/fasting insulin (IP/I0), AUCins-OGTT, and AUCins-OGTT/AUCglu-OGTTfrom the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) insulin release test were utilized to assess the second-phase insulin secretion, while the IP/I0, AIR0’~10′, and AUCins-IVGTTfrom the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) insulin release test were used to assess the first-phase insulin secretion.
In the OGTT, the HOMA-β values of the TNGT and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT and T2DM groups (all P< 0.05). In the hyperthyroidism groups, the MBCI of the TDM group was lower than that of the TNGT and TIGR groups (all P< 0.05). Among the control groups, the MBCI values of the IGR and T2DM groups were lower than that of the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (all P< 0.05). In the IVGTT, insulin secretion peaked for all groups at 2-4 min, except for the T2DM group, which showed a low plateau and no secretion peak. The IP values of the TNGT, TIGR, and TDM groups were higher than those of the NGT, IGR, and T2DM groups (all P< 0.05). The Ip/I0, AIR0'~10', and AUCins-IVGTTvalues of the TDM group were higher than those of the T2DM group but were lower than those of the TNGT, TIGR, NGR, and IGR groups (all P< 0.05). Compared with the other five groups, the Ip/I0, AIR0'~10', and AUCins-IVGTTvalues of the T2DM group were significantly decreased (all P< 0.05). The Ip/I0and AUCins-IVGTTvalues of the TNGT group were higher than those of the NGT group (all P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS
β-cell function in TDM patients is superior to that in T2DM patients. First-phase insulin secretion could be used as an early diagnostic marker to differentiate TDM and T2DM.