Tobacco smoke is known for releasing metals in indoor air of waterpipe/cigarette cafés. However, the worker exposure to metals, and its association with oxidative stress in these cafés are still unclear. To this end, 54 workers and 38 customers from waterpipe/cigarette cafés (the exposed group), 30 workers from non-smoking cafés (the control group 1 (CG_1)) and 32 individuals from the general population (the control group 2 (CG_2)) were selected and toenails samples were then taken from them. Our findings revealed a significant difference in terms of toenail-bounded metal levels between the exposure and control groups (CG_1 and CG_2) (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). This study has also indicated that "type of tobacco" could be considered as a predictor for toenail-bounded heavy metals. Furthermore, our research's results suggest that toenail-bounded heavy metals are positively and significantly correlated with urinary levels of 8- hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, as a biomarker for the degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidative stress). Therefore, it can be concluded that workers of waterpipe/cigarette cafés are at high risks of adverse health of DNA oxidative degradation.

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