Oral and maxillofacial surgery 2017 08 3121(4) 391-396 doi 10.1007/s10006-017-0644-z
The purpose of this study is to compare the value of screening for synchronous multiple primary cancers in other organs by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET-CT) in patients newly diagnosed with oral cancer.
We retrospectively examined consecutive Japanese patients who were diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and were screened for synchronous multiple primary cancers in other organs by EGD and/or PET-CT between January 2010 and December 2015 at our institution. The study included 190 patients (106 males and 84 females) from 36 to 93 years of age (median age 68.8 years). The patients were screened by EGD, PET-CT, or both before beginning treatment for OSCC.
Of 190 Japanese patients with OSCC, 15 had multiple primary cancers: 13 patients had double cancer and two had triple cancers. The sites of the 17 multiple primary cancers were gastric (6), esophageal (4), and lung (3), and ovarian, colon, liver, and thyroid (1 each). All of the gastric and esophageal cancers were found by EGD and were not detected by PET-CT. For three patients, the detection of multiple cancers affected the treatment modality or order of treatment selected for the OSCC. In two cases, the oral cancer and multiple primary cancer(s) in another organ were resected simultaneously by joint surgical teams.
PET-CT for oral cancer patients is an effective supporting diagnostic tool. However, the ability of PET-CT has some limitations. Especially for early detection of the upper gastrointestinal cancers, it is necessary to be supplemented by EGD.