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Using patient self-reports to study heterogeneity of treatment effects in major depressive disorder.

Using patient self-reports to study heterogeneity of treatment effects in major depressive disorder.
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Kessler RC, van Loo HM, Wardenaar KJ, Bossarte RM, Brenner LA, Ebert DD, de Jonge P, Nierenberg AA, Rosellini AJ, Sampson NA, Schoevers RA, Wilcox MA, Zaslavsky AM,


Kessler RC, van Loo HM, Wardenaar KJ, Bossarte RM, Brenner LA, Ebert DD, de Jonge P, Nierenberg AA, Rosellini AJ, Sampson NA, Schoevers RA, Wilcox MA, Zaslavsky AM, (click to view)

Kessler RC, van Loo HM, Wardenaar KJ, Bossarte RM, Brenner LA, Ebert DD, de Jonge P, Nierenberg AA, Rosellini AJ, Sampson NA, Schoevers RA, Wilcox MA, Zaslavsky AM,

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Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences 2016 01 2626(1) 22-36 doi 10.1017/S2045796016000020
Abstract
BACKGROUNDS
Clinicians need guidance to address the heterogeneity of treatment responses of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). While prediction schemes based on symptom clustering and biomarkers have so far not yielded results of sufficient strength to inform clinical decision-making, prediction schemes based on big data predictive analytic models might be more practically useful.

METHOD
We review evidence suggesting that prediction equations based on symptoms and other easily-assessed clinical features found in previous research to predict MDD treatment outcomes might provide a foundation for developing predictive analytic clinical decision support models that could help clinicians select optimal (personalised) MDD treatments. These methods could also be useful in targeting patient subsamples for more expensive biomarker assessments.

RESULTS
Approximately two dozen baseline variables obtained from medical records or patient reports have been found repeatedly in MDD treatment trials to predict overall treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention v. control) or differential treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention A v. intervention B). Similar evidence has been found in observational studies of MDD persistence-severity. However, no treatment studies have yet attempted to develop treatment outcome equations using the full set of these predictors. Promising preliminary empirical results coupled with recent developments in statistical methodology suggest that models could be developed to provide useful clinical decision support in personalised treatment selection. These tools could also provide a strong foundation to increase statistical power in focused studies of biomarkers and MDD heterogeneity of treatment response in subsequent controlled trials.

CONCLUSIONS
Coordinated efforts are needed to develop a protocol for systematically collecting information about established predictors of heterogeneity of MDD treatment response in large observational treatment studies, applying and refining these models in subsequent pragmatic trials, carrying out pooled secondary analyses to extract the maximum amount of information from these coordinated studies, and using this information to focus future discovery efforts in the segment of the patient population in which continued uncertainty about treatment response exists.

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