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Vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in trivalent polio vaccine and human immunodeficiency virus status: analysis from under five children.

Vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in trivalent polio vaccine and human immunodeficiency virus status: analysis from under five children.
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Hassan J, Wangai L, Borus P, Khayeka-Wandabwa C, Karani LW, Kithinji M, Kiptoo M,


Hassan J, Wangai L, Borus P, Khayeka-Wandabwa C, Karani LW, Kithinji M, Kiptoo M, (click to view)

Hassan J, Wangai L, Borus P, Khayeka-Wandabwa C, Karani LW, Kithinji M, Kiptoo M,

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BMC research notes 2017 11 0310(1) 555 doi 10.1186/s13104-017-2843-y

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by poliovirus and transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The causative agent is one of the three serotypes of poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, 3) that differ slightly in capsid protein. Prolonged vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals has been linked to possible reservoir for reintroduction of polioviruses after eradication. The study therefore aimed at estimating the duration for vaccine-related poliovirus shedding among potentially and HIV-infected persons.

METHODS
Poliovirus excretion was studied following vaccination of children aged ≤ 59 month per human immunodeficiency virus status after national immunization days. Their medical records were reviewed to identify the child’s HIV status, demographic and immunization data. Sequential stool samples were collected at site 2nd, 4th and 8th week after trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was administered. To isolate suspected polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses, characterize poliovirus subtypes by intratypic differentiation and Sabin vaccine derived poliovirus, real time polymerase chain reaction was applied. Shedding for ≥ 24 weeks was defined as long-term persistence.

RESULTS
The mean age of the study population was 28.6 months, while the median age was 24 months. Of the children recruited, majority were in the 25-48 months (n = 12; 46.2%) age category. All the HIV-positive children (n = 10) had mild symptomatic HIV status and did shed vaccine-related polioviruses between weeks 2 and 4 respectively. No participant shed polioviruses for ≥ 6 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS
It was evident mildly symptomatic HIV+ children sustain the capacity to clear vaccine-related poliovirus. The oral poliovirus vaccine-2 (Sabin like) that was detected in one HIV-infected child’s stool 6 weeks after the national immunization days was predominantly non revertant. There was no evident prolonged poliovirus shedding among the participants enlisted in the present study. High powered studies are desired to further corroborate these findings.

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