The purpose of this study was to evaluate early vascular and tomographic changes in the retina of diabetic patients using artificial intelligence (AI). The study included 74 age-matched normal eyes, 171 diabetic eyes without retinopathy (DWR) eyes and 69 mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) eyes. All patients underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. Tomographic features (thickness and volume) were derived from the OCTA B-scans. These features were used in AI models. Both OCT and OCTA features showed significant differences between the groups (p < 0.05). However, the OCTA features indicated early retinal changes in DWR eyes better than OCT (p < 0.05). In the AI model using both OCT and OCTA features simultaneously, the best area under the curve of 0.91 ± 0.02 was obtained (p < 0.05). Thus, the combined use of AI, OCT and OCTA significantly improved the early diagnosis of diabetic changes in the retina. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.