There are limited data on venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and predictive factors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) across first-line therapies.
To evaluate VTE incidence rates and identify predictive factors in NSCLC patients receiving first-line systemic therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).
This is a single institution retrospective study of adult NSCLC patients who received first-line treatment, including chemotherapy, ICIs (pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab), and/or targeted therapies (TTs) (erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, osimertinib, crizotinib, alectinib, ceritinib). Risk factors included Khorana score, cancer stage, central venous catheter, pacemaker, comorbidities, and prior VTE. The primary objective – cumulative incidence of VTE at 6- and 12-months by treatment group – was compared using Gray’s test. Univariable and multivariable competing risk analyses were used to identify predictors.
Of 1587 evaluable patients, 53% were male, 79% white, 18% black, median age was 66; 58% had adenocarcinoma, 32% squamous cell carcinoma, and 47% metastatic disease; 1043 received chemotherapy, 171 ICIs, 157 chemotherapy plus concomitant ICI, 107 chemotherapy and durvalumab maintenance, and 109 TTs. The 6-month cumulative incidence of VTE by treatment type was 5.0%, 7.6%, 9.9%, 9.4%, and 11.1%; 12-month incidence was 6.5%, 9.0%, 12.8%, 12.2%, and 13.1% per arm, respectively (p = 0.01). Treatment type (p = 0.034) and nicotine dependence (p = 0.048) were significantly associated with time to VTE in multivariable analyses.
Treatment type and smoking status were predictive of time to VTE in NSCLC patients receiving various first-line therapies. Cumulative incidence was highest in those receiving TTs and combination chemotherapy plus ICI.

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