Objectives Assess all risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and puerperium. Methods Different guidelines for VTE prevention have been analyzed. Results Various recommendations have appeared for practitioners during the last 10-15 years on the basis of the risk factors analysis in order to prevent VTE in pregnant women more effectively. Nevertheless, none of these recommendations can yet take into account all risk factors, although convenient scoring systems have emerged for risk assessment and clear recommendations on anti-thrombotic prophylaxis regimens in risk groups in recent years. Conclusions VTE is the third most common cause of death on Earth after myocardial infarctions and strokes, according to the World Health Organization. Pregnancy is a unique condition of woman, when enormous changes occur in functioning of the most important systems of homeostasis in a relatively short time. These are physiological hypercoagulation, slowing of blood flow, increase in circulating blood volume, etc. However, while being physiological, these changes increase the risks of venous thromboembolism by almost six times. In some cases, there appears an imbalance or dissociation between the functioning of natural antithrombotic systems and the activation of coagulation as a consequence of genetically or acquired determined causes (genetic thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome, comorbidities, obstetric complications and other exogenous and endogenous factors). Accordingly, identification of risk factors, their systematization, and determination of VTE risks in pregnancy and puerperium is one of the most important tasks of clinical medicine. This article will review historical understanding of thrombosis in pregnant women, progress in understanding VTE risk factors in pregnant women, and available reserves in identifying new risk factors during pregnancy and puerperium in order to stratify risks more efficiently.