Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH 2017 11 09() doi 10.1111/tmi.13001
Pregnancy and postpartum viral load suppression is critical to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and ensure maternal health. We measured viraemia risk before, during and after pregnancy in HIV-infected women.
Between 2010 and 2015, 1425 HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months pre-pregnancy were enrolled in a cohort study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Odds ratios were estimated in multilevel logistic regression, with pregnancy period time varying.
Over half of 1425 women received tenofovir-based regimens (n=791). Median pre-pregnancy ART duration was 2.1 years. Of 988 women (69.3%) with pre-pregnancy viral loads, 82.0%, 6.8% and 11.2% had VL <50, 50-999 and ≥1000 copies/ml, respectively. During pregnancy and at six, 12 and 24 months, viral load was ≥1000 copies/ml in 15.2%, 15.7%, 17.8%, and 16.6% respectively; viral load <50 was 76.9%, 77%, 75.5% and 75.8%, respectively. Adjusting for age, clinical and pregnancy factors, viraemia risk (viral load ≥50 copies/ml) was not significantly associated with pregnancy [adjusted OR (aOR) 1.31; 95% CI 0.90-1.92], six months (aOR 1.30; 95% CI 0.83-2.04), 12 months (aOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.58-1.58) and 24 months (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 0.89-2.22) postpartum. Adjusting for ART duration-pregnancy period interaction, viraemia risk was 1.8 during pregnancy and and two-fold higher postpartum. CONCLUSIONS
While undetectable viral load before pregnancy through postpartum was common, the UNAIDS goal to suppress viraemia in 90% of women was not met. Women on preconception ART remain vulnerable to viraemia; additional support is required to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and maintain maternal health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.