The number of people receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased as global access to ART has expanded. Data on the burden and factors associated with second-line ART virologic failure (VF) from India remain limited.
We conducted cross-sectional viral load (VL) testing among adults (≥ 18 years) who were registered at a publicly funded ART center in western India between 2014 and 2015 and had received second-line ART for at least 6 months. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from routinely collected programmatic data. Logistic regression evaluated factors associated with VF (defined as VL > 1000 copies/mL).
Among 400 participants, median age was 40 years (IQR 34-44), 71% (285/400) were male, and 15% (59/400) had VF. Relative to participants without VF, those with VF had lower median CD4 counts (230 vs 406 cells/mm, p < 0.0001), lower weight at first-line failure (49 vs 52 kg, p = 0.003), were more likely to have an opportunistic infection (17% vs 3%, p < 0.0001) and less likely to have optimal ART adherence (71% vs 87%, p = 0.005). In multivariable analysis, VF was associated with opportunistic infection (aOR, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.77-13.24), lower CD4 count (aOR 4.15; 95% CI, 1.98-8.71) and lower weight at first-line failure (aOR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.33-5.34).
We found second-line VF in about a sixth of participants in our setting, which was associated with nearly fivefold increased odds in the context of opportunistic infection. Weight could be a useful clinical indicator for second-line VF.

© 2022. The Author(s).