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Virological response, HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and genetic diversity among patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in N’Djamena, Chad: findings from a cross-sectional study.

Virological response, HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and genetic diversity among patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in N’Djamena, Chad: findings from a cross-sectional study.
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Adawaye C, Fokam J, Kamangu E, Alio HM, Chahad AM, Susin F, Moussa AM, Bertin TH, Tidjani A, Vaira D, Moutschen M,


Adawaye C, Fokam J, Kamangu E, Alio HM, Chahad AM, Susin F, Moussa AM, Bertin TH, Tidjani A, Vaira D, Moutschen M, (click to view)

Adawaye C, Fokam J, Kamangu E, Alio HM, Chahad AM, Susin F, Moussa AM, Bertin TH, Tidjani A, Vaira D, Moutschen M,

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BMC research notes 2017 11 1010(1) 589 doi 10.1186/s13104-017-2893-1

Abstract
BACKGROUND
The national antiretroviral therapy in the Republic of Chad provides free of charge antiretroviral regimens and therapeutic monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy nationwide. For a successful programmatic uptake, these efforts merit to be supported by thorough assessments of antiretroviral therapy response and HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance, especially with risks of cross-resistance due to the gradual stavudine phasing out in such national settings. We therefore evaluated the virological response to antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 drug resistance emergence and circulating HIV-1 clades in a Chad context. A cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted among 116 patients (41 [δ ± 6.87] years, 59% female) receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy for ≥ 6 months in Ndjamena, Chad, in 2011-2012, enrolled consecutively. To ensure accuracy, plasma viral load was concomitantly measured using Abbott Real-Time and Cobas AmpliPrep/TaqMan (v2.0), and virological failure defined as ≥ 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. Plasma from patients experiencing virological failure were processed for sequencing of HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase using the ANRS-AC.11 resistance testing protocol; drug resistant mutations were interpreted using the ANRS-AC11 algorithm; and phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA.v.6.

RESULTS
Majority of patients was receiving zidovudine plus lamivudine plus nevirapine (46%), stavudine plus lamivudine plus nevirapine (41%) and tenofovir plus emtricitabine plus efavirenz (11%), for a median time-on-treatment of 5 [IQR 4-7] years. The rate of virological failure was 43% (50/116), with 86% (43/50) sequencing performance. Overall, 32% (37/116) patients presented ≥ one major drug resistant mutation(s), with 29% (34/116) to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (67% [29/43] M184V/I, 30% [13/43] T215Y/F, 19% [8/43] V75A/F/I/L/M, 9% [4/43] K70P/R/W, 9% [4/43] K219E/N/Q and 5% [2/43] A62V); 86% (37/43) to non-nulceos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (30% [13/43] K103N/S/E, 26% [11/43] Y181C/V/F/L, 2% [1/43] L100I, 2% [1/43] F227L, 2% [1/43] P225H); and 2% (1/43) to protease inhibitors (M46I, I54V, V82S). Six HIV-1 subtypes were found: 30% circulating recombinant form (CRF02_AG), 30% J, 16% G, 9% A, 9% D, 5% F.

CONCLUSIONS
In Chad, almost half of patients are failing first-line antiretroviral therapy after 5 years, with considerable drug resistant mutations at failure. Absence of K65R supports the use of tenofovir-containing regimens as preferred first-line and as suitable drug for second-line combinations, in this setting with significant HIV-1 genetic diversity.

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