BMC research notes 2017 11 1010(1) 589 doi 10.1186/s13104-017-2893-1
The national antiretroviral therapy in the Republic of Chad provides free of charge antiretroviral regimens and therapeutic monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy nationwide. For a successful programmatic uptake, these efforts merit to be supported by thorough assessments of antiretroviral therapy response and HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance, especially with risks of cross-resistance due to the gradual stavudine phasing out in such national settings. We therefore evaluated the virological response to antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 drug resistance emergence and circulating HIV-1 clades in a Chad context. A cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted among 116 patients (41 [δ ± 6.87] years, 59% female) receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy for ≥ 6 months in Ndjamena, Chad, in 2011-2012, enrolled consecutively. To ensure accuracy, plasma viral load was concomitantly measured using Abbott Real-Time and Cobas AmpliPrep/TaqMan (v2.0), and virological failure defined as ≥ 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. Plasma from patients experiencing virological failure were processed for sequencing of HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase using the ANRS-AC.11 resistance testing protocol; drug resistant mutations were interpreted using the ANRS-AC11 algorithm; and phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA.v.6.
Majority of patients was receiving zidovudine plus lamivudine plus nevirapine (46%), stavudine plus lamivudine plus nevirapine (41%) and tenofovir plus emtricitabine plus efavirenz (11%), for a median time-on-treatment of 5 [IQR 4-7] years. The rate of virological failure was 43% (50/116), with 86% (43/50) sequencing performance. Overall, 32% (37/116) patients presented ≥ one major drug resistant mutation(s), with 29% (34/116) to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (67% [29/43] M184V/I, 30% [13/43] T215Y/F, 19% [8/43] V75A/F/I/L/M, 9% [4/43] K70P/R/W, 9% [4/43] K219E/N/Q and 5% [2/43] A62V); 86% (37/43) to non-nulceos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (30% [13/43] K103N/S/E, 26% [11/43] Y181C/V/F/L, 2% [1/43] L100I, 2% [1/43] F227L, 2% [1/43] P225H); and 2% (1/43) to protease inhibitors (M46I, I54V, V82S). Six HIV-1 subtypes were found: 30% circulating recombinant form (CRF02_AG), 30% J, 16% G, 9% A, 9% D, 5% F.
In Chad, almost half of patients are failing first-line antiretroviral therapy after 5 years, with considerable drug resistant mutations at failure. Absence of K65R supports the use of tenofovir-containing regimens as preferred first-line and as suitable drug for second-line combinations, in this setting with significant HIV-1 genetic diversity.