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Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses.

Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses.
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Wu S, Cheng J, Fu Y, Chen T, Jiang D, Ghabrial SA, Xie J,


Wu S, Cheng J, Fu Y, Chen T, Jiang D, Ghabrial SA, Xie J, (click to view)

Wu S, Cheng J, Fu Y, Chen T, Jiang D, Ghabrial SA, Xie J,

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PLoS pathogens 2017 03 2313(3) e1006234 doi 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006234
Abstract

Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in intermingled colony regions between SsMYRV4-infected Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain and other tested vegetatively incompatible strains was markedly reduced and inhibition barrage lines were not clearly observed. Vegetative incompatibility, which involves Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) signaling pathway, is controlled by specific loci termed het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in vegetative incompatibility-mediated PCD. The expression of G protein subunit genes, het genes, and ROS-related genes were significantly down-regulated, and cellular production of ROS was suppressed in the presence of SsMYRV4. Furthermore, SsMYRV4-infected strain could easily accept other viruses through hyphal contact and these viruses could be efficiently transmitted from SsMYRV4-infected strain to other vegetatively incompatible individuals. Thus, we concluded that SsMYRV4 is capable of suppressing host non-self recognition and facilitating heterologous viruses transmission among host individuals. These findings may enhance our understanding of virus ecology, and provide a potential strategy to utilize hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control fungal diseases.

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