Macular degeneration is an eye disease characterized by the loss of vision in the center of the field of vision. Several studies have suggested that a higher intake of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids could lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aims to examine the association between vitamin D and ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and the risk of AMD.

This pre-specified ancillary study of a placebo-controlled, randomized control trial included a total of 25,871 participants (mean age 67.1 years). The patients were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin D3 and marine ω-3 fatty acids. The primary outcomes of the study were total AMD events, progression to advanced AMD, and the composite of incident cases of AMD.

During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, an AMD event was reported in 324 patients. In the case of vitamin D3, there were 163 events in the treated group compared with 161 events in the placebo group. For ω-3 fatty acids, there were 157 events in the treated group compared with 167 events in the placebo group.

The research concluded that neither vitamin D3 nor ω-3 fatty acids were associated with any impact n AMD incidence and progression.