Obesity and metabolic disturbances constitute significant health problems in elderly women. Due to the multifactorial background of these disorders, assessing the interaction between risk factors remains a significant part of prevention and health promotion. Studies have illustrated a relationship between low physical activity and vitamin D deficiency with obesity and its complications. Furthermore, vitamin D affects the production of adipokines and the inflammatory response in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to determine the association between selected adipokines, vitamin D concentrations, physical activity (PA), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) in postmenopausal women. The study sample consisted of 318 ethnically homogenous postmenopausal women aged 50-60. Both anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC, WHR) and biochemical measurements (TC, HDL, LDL, TG, AIP, glucose, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, adiponectin, leptin) were made, and PA by IPAQ were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), HOMA, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and VAI were calculated using the standard formulas. We observed a negative correlation between BMI, WC, insulin, HOMA, and PA. We determined that there is a negative association between leptin and vitamin 25(OH)D concentrations (P = 0.007) and a positive association with adiponectin (P = 0.014). The results of the multiple linear regression analysis indicate that vitamin D and HOMA are independent factors that significantly affect leptin and adiponectin levels, contrary to VAI.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.