AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017 09 05() doi 10.1089/AID.2017.0009
Vitamin D may play an important role in a range of disease processes. In the general population, lower vitamin D levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. HIV-infected populations have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Few studies have examined the link between lower vitamin D levels and kidney function decline among HIV-infected persons. We investigated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with kidney function decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white and black men under highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment in the vitamin D ancillary study of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated using linear mixed effects models. This study included 187 whites and 86 blacks with vitamin D measures and eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 8.0 years, lower 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with faster eGFR decline in whites (adjusted annual change in eGFR, tertile 1: -2.06 ml/min/1.73 m(2) vs. tertile 3: -1.23 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p trend .03), while no significant association was detected in blacks. Lower 1,25(OH)2D was associated with faster kidney function decline in both whites and blacks, although the estimates were not statistically significant. In conclusion, lower 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with faster eGFR decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white men, but not in those with black ancestry. Further research is warranted to investigate the association of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with kidney function decline in larger and ethnically diverse populations.