Arterial or vascular stiffness can be an indicator of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin K is a cofactor that could prevent vascular calcification and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin K in improving arterial stiffness in patients with CKD.
This is a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind trial that included a total of 159 participants aged 18 or older with CKD stage 3B or 4 (eGFR 15–45 ml/min). The participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 400 μg oral vitamin K2 (n=80) or matching placebo (n=79) once daily for a year. The primary endpoint of the study was alleviated vascular stiffness measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Other outcomes included BP, physical function, and abdominal aortic calcification.
The findings reported no difference in pulse wave velocity, BP, physical function, and abdominal aortic calcification at 12 months of follow-up. Further analysis confirmed that vitamin K supplementation had no effect on vascular stiffness or vascular calcification.
The research concluded that in patients with chronic kidney disease, vitamin K supplementation did not result in any improvement in vascular stiffness or vascular calcification.