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Vitreous advanced glycation endproducts and α-dicarbonyls in retinal detachment patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic controls.

Vitreous advanced glycation endproducts and α-dicarbonyls in retinal detachment patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic controls.
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Fokkens BT, Mulder DJ, Schalkwijk CG, Scheijen JL, Smit AJ, Los LI,


Fokkens BT, Mulder DJ, Schalkwijk CG, Scheijen JL, Smit AJ, Los LI, (click to view)

Fokkens BT, Mulder DJ, Schalkwijk CG, Scheijen JL, Smit AJ, Los LI,

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PloS one 2017 03 0612(3) e0173379 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0173379
Abstract
PURPOSE
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their precursors α-dicarbonyls are implicated in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess AGEs and α-dicarbonyls in the vitreous of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with early stages or absence of diabetic retinopathy.

METHODS
We examined vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomy from 31 T2DM patients presenting themselves with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and compared these to 62 non-diabetic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients, matched on age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, smoking, intra-ocular lens implantation, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. AGEs (pentosidine, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and 5-hydro-5-methylimidazolone) and α-dicarbonyls (3-deoxyglucosone, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal) were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography. Skin autofluorescence was measured by the AGE Reader.

RESULTS
Mean age was 64 ± 7.6 years for T2DM patients and 63 ± 8.1 years for controls. For T2DM patients, median diabetes duration was 2.2 (0.3-7.4) years. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 1 patient and classified as absent or background retinopathy in 30 patients. Vitreous levels of pentosidine (2.20 vs. 1.59 μmol/mol lysine, p = 0.012) and 3-deoxyglucosone (809 vs. 615 nmol/L, p = 0.001) were significantly elevated in T2DM patients compared to controls. Other AGEs and α-dicarbonyls in the vitreous were not significantly different. There was a trend for increased skin autofluorescence in T2DM patients as compared to controls (p = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS
Pentosidine and 3-deoxyglucosone concentrations were increased in the vitreous of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients with a relatively short duration of diabetes compared to non-diabetic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients.

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