To investigate the role of glycemic control in development of preeclampsia (PE) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
An observational case-control study comparing 244 women with type 1 diabetes and 488 controls was conducted. Among women with T1DM HbA1c, average daily glucose values, fasting, preprandial, 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels, and daily 3 meals postprandial glucose areas were evaluated. Uterine artery pulsatility indices (PI) at 16, 20, 24 weeks’ gestation were obtained. Data analysis included rates of PE in both groups, and association between glycemic control, uterine artery PI and development of PE among women with T1DM.
PE developed in 13.1% of diabetic women and in 3.5% of women in the control group (odds ratio 4.2; 95% CI 2.2-8.1). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, HbA1c in the 1st trimester, mean daily glucose level in the 1st and 2nd trimester, daily 3 meal postprandial glucose area in the 1st and 2nd trimester, and the uterine arteries PI at 24 weeks’ gestation were found to be associated with development of PE. The uterine arteries PI showed a significant positive correlation with the 3 meal postprandial glucose area at 16, 20, 24 weeks.
In women with T1DM, poor glycemic control early in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of subsequent PE. An association between poor placentation, as indicated by the increased PI of uterine arteries, and a maternal metabolic factor, that is the 3 meal post-prandial glucose area, has been shown, supporting the increased rate of PE among women with T1DM.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.