This special issue of Biomedical Journal provides the reader with articles concerning the latest understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS), the relation to genetic predisposition, defects in the dopaminergic system, and related comorbidities which further complications like sleep disruption. Treatment approaches for TS, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder are discussed. The second section of this issue offers insights into inside out integrin activation and its link to T cell activation, demonstrates how polarity in immune cells allows adoption to specialized functions, and describes the endosomal signaling of internalized T cell receptors (TCRs). The link between mutations in TCR signaling and immunodeficiencies is elucidated, as well as the interactions of thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection in T cell development. Additionally, we learn about a potential biomarker for colorectal cancer, screening tools for determining frailty in older adults, surgical approaches in spinal metastases, the influence of autophagy on mating behavior, and the effect of nitrite administration on SNARE proteins associated with insulin secretion. Finally, parameters for surgery in breast cancer are discussed, as well as gender and age dependent pain perception in a lysosomal storage disease, and the use of laser meridian massage in opioid use disorder. Three letters complement this issue, one concerning neuroimaging in pediatric COVID-19 patients, and two discussing the role of cancer antigen-125 and renal impairment in ovarian cancer patients.Copyright © 2022 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.