In preclinical models of multiple sclerosis (MS), both adiabatic T (T ) and relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF) imaging have demonstrated potential to noninvasively characterize MS.
To evaluate the feasibility of whole brain T and RAFF imaging in healthy volunteers and patients with MS.
Single institutional clinical trial.
About 38 healthy volunteers (24-69 years) and 21 patients (26-59 years) with MS. Five healthy volunteers underwent a second MR examination performed within 8 days. Clinical disease severity (The Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] and The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score [MSSS]) was evaluated at baseline and 1-year follow-up (FU).
RAFF in second rotating frame of reference (RAFF2) was performed at 3 T using 3D-fast-field echo with magnetization preparation, RF amplitude of 11.74 μT while the corresponding value for T was 13.50 μT. T -, T -, and FLAIR-weighted images were acquired with reconstruction voxel size 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm .
The parametric maps of T and RAFF2 (T ) were calculated using a monoexponential model. Semi-automatic segmentation of MS lesions, white matter (WM), and gray matter (GM), and WM tracks was performed using T -, T -, and FLAIR-weighted images.
Regression analysis was used to evaluated correlation of T and T with age and disease severity while a Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for differences between tissue types. Short-term repeatability was evaluated on voxel level.
Both T and T demonstrated good short-term repeatability with relative differences on voxel level in the range of 6.1%-11.9%. Differences in T and T between the tissue types in MS patients were significant (P < 0.05). T and T correlated (P < 0.001) with baseline EDSS/MSSM and disease progression at FU (P < 0.001).
Whole brain T and T at 3 T was feasible with significant differences in T and T values between tissues time and correlation with disease severity.

© 2021 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.