Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a developmental disorder attributed to a partial deletion on the short arm of chromosome 4. WHS patients suffer from oral manifestations including cleft lip and palate (CLP), hypodontia, and taurodontism. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 gene (WHSC1) is a H3K36-specific methyltransferase that is deleted in every reported case of WHS. Mutation in this gene also results in tooth anomalies in patients. However, the correlation between genetic abnormalities and the tooth anomalies has remained controversial. In our study, we aimed to clarify the role of WHSC1 in tooth development. We profiled the Whsc1 expression pattern during mouse incisor and molar development by immunofluorescence staining and found Whsc1 expression is reduced as tooth development proceeds. Using RT-qPCR, Western blot, ChIP and luciferase assays, we determined that Whsc1 and Pitx2, the initial transcription factor involved in tooth development, positively and reciprocally regulate each other through their gene promoters. MicroRNAs are known to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally during development. We previously reported miR-23a/b and miR-24-1/2 were highly expressed in the mature tooth germ. Interestingly, we demonstrate here that these two miRs directly target Whsc1 and repress its expression. Additionally, this miR cluster is also negatively regulated by Pitx2. We show the expression of these two miRs and Whsc1 are inversely correlated during mouse mandibular development. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the potential role of Whsc1 in regulating tooth development and a possible molecular mechanism underlying the dental defects in WHS.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.