The effects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are unclear.
To establish the relative risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, revascularization and cardiovascular mortality for women with PCOS.
Data were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. Patients with PCOS were matched to controls (1:1) by age, body mass index (BMI) category and primary care practice. The primary outcome was the time to major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE); a composite endpoint incorporating MI, stroke, angina, revascularization and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary outcomes were the individual MACE endpoints.
Of 219,034 with a diagnosis of PCOS, 174,660 (79.7%) met the eligibility criteria and were matched. Crude rates of the composite endpoint, MI, stroke, angina, revascularization and cardiovascular mortality were respectively 82.7, 22.7, 27.4, 32.8, 10.5 and 6.97 per 100,000 patient-years for cases, and 64.3, 15.9, 25.7, 19.8, 7.13 and 7.75 per 100,000 patient-years for controls. In adjusted cox proportional hazard models (CPHM), the hazard ratios [HR] were 1.26 (95% confidence interval=1.13-1.41), 1.38 (1.11-1.72), 1.60 (1.32-1.94) and 1.50 (1.08-2.07) for the composite outcome, MI, angina and revascularization, respectively. In a time-dependent CPHM, weight gain (HR 1.01 [1.00-1.01]), prior type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (HR 2.40 [1.76-3.30]) and social deprivation (HR 1.53 [1.11-2.11]) increased risk of progression to the composite endpoint.
The risk of incident MI, angina and revascularization is increased in young women with PCOS. Weight and T2DM are potentially modifiable risk factors amenable to intervention.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society.