As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors for several different malignancies becomes more mainstream, their side-effect profile raises new challenges. In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first checkpoint inhibitor for the treatment of advanced melanoma, and since then, checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in many other tumor types. Given the frequent use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in a wide range of cancers today, the diagnosis and management of their immune-mediated toxicities need special attention. One of the most common is immune-mediated colitis. Workup and management of immune-mediated colitis can be challenging and is the purpose of this review. KEY POINTS: Rate of immune mediated colitis differ from different kind of immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. To work up immune-mediated colitis, tests to rule out infectious etiologies of diarrhea, colonoscopy and abdominal image will help to differentiate immune mediated colitis from colitis from other etiology. Patients with mild colitis can be managed with supportive therapies alone, but more severe cases may require immunomodulators such as steroid. Refractory cases may require tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, such as infliximab in addition to steroid treatment.© AlphaMed Press 2019.
TdT Expression Is a Marker of Better Survival in Merkel Cell Carcinoma, and Expression of B-Cell Markers Is Associated With Merkel Cell Polyomavirus.
March 9, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.