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Xanthine oxidase inhibition by febuxostat attenuates stress-induced hyperuricemia, glucose dysmetabolism, and prothrombotic state in mice.

Xanthine oxidase inhibition by febuxostat attenuates stress-induced hyperuricemia, glucose dysmetabolism, and prothrombotic state in mice.
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Yisireyili M, Hayashi M, Wu H, Uchida Y, Yamamoto K, Kikuchi R, Shoaib Hamrah M, Nakayama T, Wu Cheng X, Matsushita T, Nakamura S, Niwa T, Murohara T, Takeshita K,


Yisireyili M, Hayashi M, Wu H, Uchida Y, Yamamoto K, Kikuchi R, Shoaib Hamrah M, Nakayama T, Wu Cheng X, Matsushita T, Nakamura S, Niwa T, Murohara T, Takeshita K, (click to view)

Yisireyili M, Hayashi M, Wu H, Uchida Y, Yamamoto K, Kikuchi R, Shoaib Hamrah M, Nakayama T, Wu Cheng X, Matsushita T, Nakamura S, Niwa T, Murohara T, Takeshita K,

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Scientific reports 2017 04 287(1) 1266 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-01366-3
Abstract

Chronic stress is closely linked to the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hyperuricemia and thromboembolism, but the mechanisms remain elusive. We reported recently that stress targets visceral adipose tissue (VAT), inducing lipolysis, low-grade inflammation with production of inflammatory adipokines, metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, and prothrombotic state. In the present study, we hypothesized the involvement of VAT xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uric acid (UA) in the above processes. Restraint stress in mice resulted in upregulation of XOR and xanthine oxidase activity, accumulation of ROS in VAT as well as liver and intestine, increase in serum UA levels, upregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits and downregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis also showed that restraint stress induced VAT monocyte accumulation and proinflammatory adipokine production, resulting in reduced insulin sensitivity and induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor in VAT. Treatment with febuxostat, a potent XO inhibitor, suppressed stress-induced ROS production and VAT inflammation, resulting in improvement of serum UA levels, insulin sensitivity, and prothrombotic tendency. Our results suggest that stress perturbs glucose and UA metabolism, and promotes prothrombotic status, and that XO inhibition by febuxostat might be a potential therapy for stress-related disorders.

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